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Writing across the Curriculum

Freshman year of high school was terrifying.  People seem incredulous when I tell them that, of all the years of schooling I have had, that year was the hardest.  After all, it was high school.  What could be so tough about that?

As my Grandmom used to say with a huge sigh, “Well…!”

The first problem was that I was not prepared for the workload.  Coming from a public middle school into this rigorous public high school that wanted to weed out those who weren’t able to handle the curriculum, I found myself suddenly overwhelmed by the amount of work they made us do.  By the time I turned fourteen in October, I thought I was going to lose my mind.  It didn’t help that our school President, Dr. Pavel, said to us during orientation, “Look to your left and to your right.  One of these people, or more, will probably return to their home school at the end of this school year.”  Yikes.

The second problem was that I was expected to do things I had never done before, like write papers and essays.  In elementary and middle school, we did not do much writing.  I think we did book reports in fifth grade, but I could be mistaken.  It wasn’t that I was a bad writer.  I actually enjoyed writing for my own purposes, but did not have the tools I needed to create the papers and essays the teachers wanted.  In other words, I didn’t know how to meet their expectations.  That was scary.

Enter Dr. Kreider, my World History teacher.  She is still my academic hero; I haven’t met a teacher like her since.  The best gift she could have given us hurt like hell: The chance to practice writing.  Many of us almost wrote our hand off.

OK, not really.  But it really did hurt.

Dr. Kreider did three things for us, actually.  First, she managed every student a copy of the New York Times every school day.  Second, she made us keep journals in which we reacted to topics covered in class and NYT articles.  Third, she responded to everyone’s journals over the weekend, and not just with a “Nice job!” either.  Oh, no.  We would get paragraphs back.   If we almost wrote our hand off, she must have thought she should, too.  I do not know how she did it, but I do know that she loved her kids.  She loved them enough to embrace writing across the curriculum with gusto.   Dr. Kreider actually did research in the area, I would learn later, and delivered papers about the positive effects of students learning to read and write in all content-area classes.

Fast-forward 30 years to my son’s freshman English class.  His teacher listened to the students, slack-jawed, as they told her that none of them knew how to write an essay.  Admittedly, this is her first year teaching freshmen in a long time, so perhaps she simply lost perspective.  In my opinion, however, it just shows that some things never change, but they need to quickly.

Rewind 26 years to English Composition class.  Typically, we would write an essay, peer review our classmates’ essays, and then create a final version for the teacher.  I remember being appalled by the writing I reviewed.  My red pen dashed across the page until I think there was as much red on the page as blue or black.  Some classmates appreciated the help.

Others, I was informed one day while riding the 66 bus home with my friend Susanne, were terrified to give me their papers to review.  I asked why.

“Because you are so mean, Heather,” she replied, quietly.

“I’m just trying to help!” I responded, indignant.

“Perhaps you could try helping with a different color ink and less sarcasm,” she said, emboldened by being right.

I sulked, as I usually did when I was wrong about something.  The next day I went to the college store, purchased a green pen, and resolved to restrain myself.

Situations like these are why the creators of the Common Core State Standards focus on literacy and writing – in other words, on communication in all its forms.  The fact is that many students need more opportunities to write their hands off (and yes, I’m an advocate of writing on paper before writing electronically).  They need to write in each content area class, not just English.  Social Studies teachers – like Dr. Kreider – have excellent opportunities to have their students write informatively, persuasively, and creatively.  Science teachers can enforce good communication skills, as well as proper grammar and style, in lab reports, responses to essay questions, etc.  Even math teachers can post intriguing problems and require a constructed response (Aside: Where did that term come from?  I’m not crazy about it.).  My son’s math teacher has done that, using a discussion board online to help the students think through Algebra II problems using critical thinking and standard English.  Technology teachers can incorporate writing skills into their projects.  PE and Health teachers can ask students to produce works that show critical thinking.  Vo-tech teachers can ask students to write about their projects and what they have learned from doing them. Any teacher can incorporate critical thinking and effective communication skills into their curriculum.

Again, why are the creators of the Common Core State Standards so keen on ensuring that communication skills are practiced across the content areas?  I am sighing now as I write, “Well…!”  Here is a another reason.

The students’ inability to communicate effectively, both when writing and when speaking, continue when they enter adulthood and the workforce, unless they are given the chance to overcome these challenges in school.  The potential for knowledge sharing is greatly diminished when a person cannot get their ideas out of their heads and onto paper, the screen, or during a meeting.  Opportunities for innovation are lost, as well as opportunities for employees to advance in their careers.

As teachers in a corporate setting, we find this inability to be most problematic when working with the SME, the subject matter expert. Often, SMEs have difficulty explaining what they do.  They express frustration, often punctuating it with, “That’s just the way it’s done!  Watch me.”  Being unfamiliar with a technique, we can watch all we want, but we will not be able to reproduce their efforts without spending more time than we have to spare trying and failing, or researching.  We cannot ask the SME to teach others, since they cannot teach us.  If we do, we just waste everyone’s time.  That invaluable knowledge remains stuck  inside the SME’s head.  No one else can benefit from it.  We educators feel that is a terrible loss.

Great communicators are not born, contrary to popular opinion.  They learn their art the same way that we all learn something that intrigues us, by watching, listening, and trying.  As Vygotsky said, all learning is social, and it is within the community that we progress from a state of not knowing to mastering something under the tutelage of one or more more knowledgeable others.  It is important that we learn from those who can explain.

I have heard time and again: “I’m just not a good writer / speaker / teacher.”  What they mean is, “I don’t have the talent to be a good writer / speaker / teacher.”  Talent is irrelevant.  Communicators such as  Hemingway, Jobs, Socrates, Shakespeare, and Twain made it look easy, natural.  In fact, they practiced.  Their first efforts were, most likely, awful, not awesome, and what I mean by “first effort” is each and every time they chose to create something new by rearranging the letters of their alphabet.  I’m sure that even Socrates had to practice on someone, perhaps Plato.  Ask any of my writer friends and they will tell you that they have “killed trees” trying to get their message “right.”  What makes the great communicators different from the rest of us is commitment, perseverance, and grit.  Somewhere along the line there was their Dr. Kreider there to push them, even if only in their minds.

I applaud any teacher who embraces “Writing across the Curriculum.”  For those who aren’t English teachers, it seems like a daunting addition to their curriculum, although it does not have to be.  There are plenty of resources on the web that will help these teachers figure out where it makes sense to include a writing or speaking component into their current plans.  Explore the NCTE and ASCD websites for more information.

Happy New Year!


What is the value of an internal training team?

This post is speculative, based on opinion and observation, and full of educated guesses.  If that is all right with you, please continue reading.

What’s in a name?

Calling a training team an “internal training team” boxes the members into a corner and restricts their role within the organization.  It gives others the impression that the team is only to be used for training colleagues, when in reality, that team could do more by also interacting with customers or employees of those customers.  Therefore, renaming the team would increase its value in the eyes of fellow employees.  Putting team members in front of customers would increase the value of the team outside the organization.  It would also help them do their jobs back in the office, by providing an important perspective with which to develop curricula – that of the customer.  Helping them to assume leadership roles within the organization would increase their credibility and their chances of keeping their jobs should the economy tank yet again.

We trainers know that we are the first group of employees considered when the management decides to downsize.  In one company I worked for years ago, we were called “overhead” and considered expendable.  Fortunately, we managed to make it through the RIFs (Reduction in Force) each time because we did more than train fellow employees.  When we put on the second and third hat, we increased our value.  Instead of being “nice to have,” we became employees they “must have.”

My advice: Consider calling the team something that truly reflects their value within the organization, and consider diversifying their duties so they are not training all the time.  Let them use their skills to interact with employees outside the classroom, and with customers outside the office.  Then, expect them to reflect on those experiences and use them to build curricula that will resonate with colleagues and customers alike.

How much does it cost to retain an employee?

You spend months training a new hire – and then they leave.  How much money have you wasted?  This happens all the time.  Either the employee decides the position is not a good fit, or the company decides that the employee is not a good fit for the position.  Either way, thousands of dollars were spent for nothing.  If the company had had a more rigorous new employee training program (which I will not call ‘onboarding’), the situation might have resolved itself much differently.  Management might have had enough information to decide to part ways with the employee much sooner, for instance.  Alternatively, the employee could have performed better, given the proper training and support, and everyone would be happy.

Trial by Fire

Unfortunately, many small to medium-sized companies do not have such a program, and probably don’t have an internal training team, either.  That has been my experience, at least.  My colleagues and I refer to these first few months in a new job as “trial by fire.”  I’m sure many others do also; we certainly did not invent the phrase.

There really are many new employees who find themselves in a cube with a computer, phone, office directory, and a list of “Who to Call for What.”  They have a basic understanding of what is expected of them, but hardly enough information to start working.  Unfortunately, they are expected to start moving earth without having any idea where this tunnel is going to lead them.  Perhaps someone has given them some URLs, a few printed manuals from 1995, etc., but other than that, they are on their own.  After a few days, if the employee hasn’t bolted from the office screaming, they usually stay.  They are bleary-eyed and miserable, but they slog through while they keep their resume up-to-date on LinkedIn, Career Builder, and Monster, just in case something (anything) better comes along.

Does that sound familiar?  Come here, I’ll give you a hug.

Peer Training

A slightly better approach is to conduct peer training or on-the-job training.  Companies that do not have training programs for new employees often rely on veteran employees and managers to train others.  I’ve found the following problems with that approach.

  1. The veteran employees, although highly skilled and considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts), have no idea how to share their knowledge with someone who is new to the position.
  2. The manager does not have a lot of time to devote to one employee, so the employee sits in a cube and pretends to look busy or studious while the manager runs off to help other employees.
  3. Neither the SME nor the manager have a curriculum to guide them as they train the employee.  There could be gaps in knowledge transfer, or they could be confusing the new employee by not teaching things in the proper, logical order.
  4. Neither the SME nor the manager know how to teach someone.  They aren’t trainers and have never received training on, well, how to train.
  5. There is an important part missing in this approach: the orientation.  Humans need the big picture to understand the more detailed aspects.  What I see instead is that the employee is immediately immersed in details.  By the end of the day, she’s more confused than educated.

 Bring in the Team!

Let’s end this post on a positive note.  There certainly is a way for managers and SMEs to train new employees, and they should be involved in the process.  First, however, the manager and SMEs should consult with the training team and develop a training plan that makes sense.  Some of my colleagues are very good at this, as they want more than anything to see the new employee succeed.  They need that new employee to succeed.  As soon as they receive an acceptance from the employee, I turn around and they are at my desk.  They want to put a plan together that includes formal training, peer training, and self-study.  They work closely with the employee during that first week on the job, teaching them the logistical things they need to know, introducing them to teammates and other employees, and establishing the training plan with them.  Gradually, they release the new employee into the wild, often entrusting him or her to the care of those in their team while also keeping a close eye on them.  Those that are successful often learn to request training on their own when they realize the training they need. I have seen it work, and it is something beautiful.

The managers and SMEs that make the new employee process work have a few things in common.

  1. They are tireless advocates for their employees.  One refers to herself as “Momma Bear, when it comes to my people.”  No argument here.
  2. They think things through and incorporate their experiences into new paradigms of thought and action.
  3. They take full responsibility for the success or failure of their team.
  4. They truly love what they do, and want everyone else to love their jobs too.

The Cycle Should Never End

Imagine how good such a program would be if the training team truly understood the objectives and goals of the team in question!  That brings this post full circle then.  Invest in the training team by sending them outside the organization to learn the customer’s perspective.  Require that they reflect on those experiences and incorporate them into their training programs.  Require that managers and SMEs work with the training team to develop plans for new employees.  Encourage all peer trainers to consult with the team prior to taking on new training tasks.  Stop calling them the “internal training team” and find a title that truly reflects what they do.

What would your title be?